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Academy timeline

18th century

1720

Bavaria had been keen to join Europe's academy movement since the start of the 18th century. The Academia Carola Albertina, an early forerunner of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, was founded in 1720 but was not in existence for very long.

Front page of Parnassus boicus
Front page of Parnassus boicus

1722

Founded in 1722, the “Parnassus Boicus oder neu-eröffneter Musenberg” society (Parnassus Boicus or Bavarian Mountain Muse society) was another precursor to the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Its members were learned lay people and clerics, primarily Augustinian canons and hermits. Their brand of enlightened, secular Catholicism defined the Bavarian academy movement's particular roots. The society published a journal under the same name. Five volumes were produced in the time up until 1740. Its aim was to investigate the natural world and promote Bavarian history.

Production of Parnassus Boicus was halted due to the outbreak of war. The last edition was published in 1740. No other institution that could have furthered the idea of critical research into history and the natural world emerged for quite some time after this.

The 1759 founding charter of the academy refers explicitly to the Parnassus Boicus.

Johann Georg von Lori, 1758
Johann Georg von Lori, 1758

1758

To ensure this new appreciation of the sciences and humanities in Bavaria continued into the future, Johann Georg von Lori (1723–1787), court councillor at the Mint and Mining Commission in Munich, founded the “Bayerische Gelehrte Gesellschaft” (Bavarian Scholarly Society) as a successor to Parnassus Boicus on 12 October 1758.

Right from the start, the founding members wanted the society to be elevated to the status of a royal academy, dedicated to research and scientific progress.

Linprun's House at Burgstraße 5, Munich
Linprun's House at Burgstraße 5, Munich

1758

In addition to Johann Georg von Lori, the academy's founding members also included Royal Mint and Mines Councillor Dominicus von Linprun and honorary business councillor Franz Xaver Stubenrauch. Lori drew up a charter that clearly tended towards the structure of an academy.

Sigmund Graf von und zu Haimhausen was the first president of the Bavarian Scholarly Society. He was also head of the Bavarian Mint and Mines Commission (and as such Loris's superior). His good connections to the court gave the society access to the Elector.

Kurfürst Max III. Joseph (1727-1777)
Kurfürst Max III. Joseph (1727-1777)

1759

The founding charter of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities was signed by Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, on 28 March 1759, the date of his birthday. He confirmed the academy's statutes on 25 June 1759. The academy was initially financed from taxes.

The academy was the first major public scientific institution funded by the state ruler to be established in the royal seat of Munich. At this time, the university was still based in Ingolstadt.

Gedenkmedaillle geprägt anlässlich der Gründung der Akademie im Jahr 1759
Gedenkmedaillle geprägt anlässlich der Gründung der Akademie im Jahr 1759

1759

From the very beginning, the academy chose not to take religion or nationality into consideration when choosing members. Instead, prospective members had to submit a paper, which had to be accepted by the academy. Nineteen of the eighty-eight members in the founding year were protestant – and this was at a time when protestants were unable to gain citizenship in Munich.

Members were split into two classes, a historical class and a philosophical class (today, there are four sections). The first class was tasked with collating, collecting and critically reviewing official documents or deeds, letters, inscriptions and antiquities. It was also responsible for researching the history of Bavaria and creating dictionaries.

The second class was responsible for researching the natural world, collecting natural objects or works in Germany and abroad and chemically analysing them as well as distributing scientific findings and inventions for the benefit of agriculture, trade, mining and metallurgy. Further tasks included submitting proposals for surveying land, astronomical observations, the application of meteorological methods for investigating the natural world, water management and calendar systems as well as statistical functions.

1760

During these first years, the academy does not have its own premises. Members initially meet at Burgstrasse 5 and then in the apartment of President Haimhausen. Later, the academy meets in rooms next to the court library.

In 1760, the academy moves into its first permanent home near the Schwabing city gate. The property is owned by the Fugger family and located between Theatinerstrasse and Faulhaberstrasse (today the site of the Fünf Höfe centre).

1761

On 6 June, the academy invites guests to witness a very rare event at its observatory located in a part of the city known as the Rockerl (which is today on the site of Bavaria's Highest Building Authority). This high-profile public demonstration of Venus transiting across the sun brings the academy's research activities to the attention of Munich's wider population for the first time. 

Cover der Monumenta Boica, 1763
Cover der Monumenta Boica, 1763

1763

The academy starts collecting and editing old Bavarian documents in its Monumenta Boica journal. This work shapes the organisation’s special focus on history and establishes Munich’s position as a centre for historical studies in Germany. The first volume was published in 1763. Today, the collection covers around 100 extensive volumes.

Cover des ersten Bandes der Abhandlungen von 1779
Cover des ersten Bandes der Abhandlungen von 1779

1779

In 1779, the academy establishes a belletristic class in addition to its historical and philosophical class. The new class is dedicated to literature, theatre, language and the fine arts. However, it is shut down a few years later in 1785 under the rule of Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria, when several of its members are suspected of belonging to the Illuminati Order, which is banned in 1785.

Messdaten vom Hohenpeißenberg, 16. bis 30. Juni 1794
Messdaten vom Hohenpeißenberg, 16. bis 30. Juni 1794

1781

The academy starts making systematic meteorological observations as far back as 1759. From 1781 on, it moves these activities to Hohe Peißenberg mountain to the southwest of Munich and also publishes its results. The Bavarian meteorological observatory wasn’t integrated into a national body until 1934, when it became part of the newly founded Reich Weather Service. Today, it is run by Germany's National Meteorological Service.

Gemälde der Akademie von Heinrich Adam, ca. 1830
Gemälde der Akademie von Heinrich Adam, ca. 1830

1783

The academy moves to the Wilhelminum, a spacious college building on Neuhauser Strasse that used to belong to the Jesuit order before it was dissolved. It remains here until the Second World War.

Wahlurne der BAdW
Wahlurne der BAdW

1786

On 21 March, the members of the academy use a ballot box for the first time for its annual election.

This system is an effective, secret ballot that uses black and white wooden balls. Voting members use a white ball to vote yes and a black ball to vote no. The academy uses this procedure to this day to select its members.

19th century

1800

The Topographical Office is founded with the purpose of carrying out land surveys. The academy did not have any institutional powers in the new office, but several of its members made key contributions (for example Brander, Riedl, Schiegg). 

1802

The philosophical class changes its name to the physical class. 

Die Verfassung der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften von 1807
Die Verfassung der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften von 1807

1807

Under the regency of Maximilian I Joseph (1806 - 1825), the academy transitions from an independent organisation of scholars to a state-owned central institution with a new constitution and a staff of full-time government officials on fixed salaries. It is put under the direct control of the Interior Ministry. 

1807

The scientific collections and institutes of the State of Bavaria are incorporated into the academy as "attributes". This affects a number of organisations, in particular the central library, the natural history collection, the chemical laboratory, the mint office and antiquarium, the Bogenhausen observatory, the botanical garden and the anatomical theatre. The academy also receives the assets of the Mannheim Academy, which has been closed down. 

Joseph Baader (1763-1835)
Joseph Baader (1763-1835)

1807

Joseph von Baader is appointed the first curator of the academy's polytechnic collection. He remains in this post until 1817.  

1807

The Commission for Research into German Antiquities is founded and remains in existence until 1827. 

Friedrich von Schlichtegroll (1765-1822)
Friedrich von Schlichtegroll (1765-1822)

1812

President Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi resigns from his post following disagreements with Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854). The academy is headed by Secretary General Friedrich von Schlichtegroll (1765-1822) until 1822. 

Die Kgl. Sternwarte zu Bogenhausen nach einer Lithographie von C. Lebschée aus dem Jahr 1830.
Die Kgl. Sternwarte zu Bogenhausen nach einer Lithographie von C. Lebschée aus dem Jahr 1830.

1816

Construction gets underway on the Bogenhausen observatory, which starts operations on 4 January 1818. Johann Georg von Soldner is the first director.

Andreas Schmeller (1785-1852)
Andreas Schmeller (1785-1852)

1816

Andreas Schmeller starts work on the Bavarian Dictionary, initiating a research project that is still in progress today. This work also lays the foundation for the first philology-based German-language dictionary.

Präzisionsmessinstrument von Georg von Reichenbach
Präzisionsmessinstrument von Georg von Reichenbach

1817

This decade represents a high point in scientific research. Key innovations include the development of high-precision optical instruments by Joseph von Fraunhofer, the water column engine by Georg von Reichenbach and the galvanic telegraph by Samuel Thomas von Sömmering.

Vogelteich am Rio Sao Francisco, 1817
Vogelteich am Rio Sao Francisco, 1817

1817

The two academy members Johann Baptist Spix and Karl Friedrich von Martius set off on a research expedition to Brazil. They return in 1820 with a large collection of plants for the botanical gardens in Munich. 

1819

The Society for Older German History starts work on a comprehensive series of primary sources from the German Middle Ages known as the Monumenta Germaniae Historica (MGH). Under the direction of historian Georg Heinrich Pertz (1795-1876), this work plays a key role in bringing German medieval studies to the international stage.  

1826

In 1826, the Bavarian State University moves from Landshut to Munich. The academy now has access to a much wider pool of scholars than ever before. Its academic and scientific endeavours become increasingly professional as a result.  

Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling (1775-1854)
Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling (1775-1854)

1827

Under King Ludwig I (1786-1868), the academy returns to its roots as an independent community of scholars and a research hub. Its members are released from public service. The “attributes” are removed from the organisation. Some are consolidated into a newly created general academy, which was also headed by the president of the academy until 1936. Other attributes are incorporated into the study collections at the University. 

King Ludwig I appoints Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling as president of the academy. 

1827

The polytechnic collection, formerly an attribute of the academy, becomes a "central polytechnic institute". This is a forerunner of the technical college which later becomes the Technical University of Munich as it is known today. 

1841

King Ludwig I remains involved in the running of the academy and reserves the right to appoint the president and six members in every class. This represents a massive infringement of the academy's independence.  

1843

The academy and the university's palaeontological collections are consolidated to create the Bavarian State Palaeontology Collection. 

Friedrich Wilhelm von Thiersch (1784-1860)
Friedrich Wilhelm von Thiersch (1784-1860)

1848

Maximilian II ascends the throne. The academy and its new president, Friedrich Wilhelm von Thiersch, demand that the new king rescind the royal right to intervene in administration affairs.

1849

The academy is given back its right to select its members. 

1849

Maximilian II founds the Natural Sciences and Technology Commission. 

Statut der Historischen Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 26.11.1858
Statut der Historischen Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 26.11.1858

1858

Maximilian II founds the “Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften” (Historical Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities). The commission is still in existence today, looking back on a wealth of fundamental source editions under its management. 

Justus von Liebig (1803-1873)
Justus von Liebig (1803-1873)

1859

Justus von Liebig, from the town of Gießen, is appointed president of the academy. His public evening lectures in the Liebig auditorium help make academic research popular among the general public. 

1860

The first minutes from meetings are published in 1860. These reports are still regularly published today.  

Gründungsurkunde der Bayerischen Kommission für die Internationale Erdmessung
Gründungsurkunde der Bayerischen Kommission für die Internationale Erdmessung

1868

The Bavarian Commission for International Geodesy is founded. The Prussian officer and geodesist Johann Jakob Baeyer (1794-1885) is the driving force behind this initiative. Important figures in geodesy at the time include Carl Maximilian von Bauernfeind (academy member since 1865), mathematician Ludwig von Seidel and physicist Philipp von Jolly (1809-1884). In 1885, the commission is expanded, becoming the international geodesy project which is still in existence today.  

Ignaz von Döllinger (1799-1890)
Ignaz von Döllinger (1799-1890)

1873

During the presidency of the theologian Ignaz von Döllinger (1873-1890), a culture of private patronage starts to gain momentum across the academy. The Liebig Foundation is the first undertaking of this kind. By 1914, private foundations cover half of the academy's financial needs. They enable major projects to be pursued, including Adolf Furtwängler's archaeological excavations in Aegina and the relocation of the botanical gardens to Nymphenburg in 1912.

Therese von Bayern (1840-1925)
Therese von Bayern (1840-1925)

1892

Princess Theresa of Bavaria becomes the first, and to date only, female honorary member of the academy under the presidency of Max von Pettenkofer (1890-1899). After several disagreements regarding the acceptance of female members in general, she was awarded membership in recognition of her research in the fields of anthropology, zoology and botany.

Die Zettelkästen des Thesaurus Linguae Latinae
Die Zettelkästen des Thesaurus Linguae Latinae

1893

The Commission for the Publication of the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae was the academy's first major humanities project within the framework of an international collaboration with academies in Berlin, Göttingen, Leipzig, Munich and Vienna. The central editorial office was established at the academy in 1899, supported by more than 30 academies and scholarly associations in Germany and abroad since 1949. 

1893

The thus-far informal collaboration between German-speaking academies (Göttingen, Leipzig, Munich and Vienna) is formalised with the creation of the Cartel organisation. The academy in Berlin joins the group in 1906 and the Heidelberg academy in 1909/11

20th century

1900

The Commission for the Publication of the Corpus of Greek Documents from the Middle Ages and the Modern Period is founded.  

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923)
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923)

1901

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, the discoverer of x-rays, is awarded the first Nobel Prize for physics and becomes the academy's first Nobel Prize winner.t gleichzeitig auch der erste Nobelpreisträger der Akademie.

1906

The Commission for the Publication of Medieval Library Catalogues is founded. From 1932/33, it operates as the Commission for the Publication of Medieval Library Catalogues in Germany and Switzerland. 

Karl Theodor von Heigel (1842-1905)
Karl Theodor von Heigel (1842-1905)

1909

The academy celebrates its 150th anniversary with a special lecture held by historian Karl Theodor von Heigel in the ceremonial hall of the Wilhelminum in the presence of Prince Regent Luitpold. 

Mundartkarte "Marienkäfer" aus dem Bayerischen Wörterbuch
Mundartkarte "Marienkäfer" aus dem Bayerischen Wörterbuch

1911

The Commission for the Creation of Bavarian Dictionaries and for Research into Bavarian Dialects is founded. From 1942 on, the organisation is called the Commission for Dialect Research and concentrates on creating a Bavarian, East Franconian and Rheinland Palatinate Dictionary.  

Medaille Bene Merenti
Medaille Bene Merenti

1911

The academy's Bene Merenti medal of merit is created by Theodor von Gosen (1873-1943), professor at the Academy of Art in Breslau. The medal comes in gold, silver and bronze. The gold medal is smaller than the silver and bronze medals. The silver medal is awarded most frequently. The gold medal is almost exclusively reserved for statesmen or stateswomen. 

Erste Ausgabe des Jahrbuchs von 1912
Erste Ausgabe des Jahrbuchs von 1912

1912

The first edition of the academy’s yearbook is published. The first yearbooks mainly report on the academy's broad range of collecting activities and extensive preparatory work. Today, the yearbook focuses on accountability, providing information on how efficiently the organisation operates based on its progress towards the goals it has set.  

Gedenkstein für Karl von Goebel
Gedenkstein für Karl von Goebel

1912

The Munich Botanical Gardens open. The gardens are the brainchild of Privy Councillor and academy member Professor Dr. Karl von Goebel.

Karl Theodor Ritter von Heigel (1904-1915)
Karl Theodor Ritter von Heigel (1904-1915)

1912

The Commission for the Collection and Editing of Soldiers' Songs is set up under the presidency of Karl Theodor Ritter von Heigel (1904-1915). It concludes its work in 1925. The Commission for the Publication of an Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences is also founded and remains in existence until 1949.  

1914

The Commission for the Planned Apparatus Criticus on the Koran starts its work and continues until 1950. 

Glockenkrater mit Darstellung einer Töpferwerkstatt, 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr., Oxford Ashmolean Museum
Glockenkrater mit Darstellung einer Töpferwerkstatt, 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr., Oxford Ashmolean Museum

1921

The Commission for the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum is founded during the presidency of Hugo Ritter von Seeliger (1919-1923). The Commission is still active today. 

1923

Inflation devalues almost all of the academy's funds from patrons. The loss of these assets prompts the academy to put a stop to virtually all competitions and funding for expeditions.  

Hugo Ritter von Seeliger (1919–1923)
Hugo Ritter von Seeliger (1919–1923)

1923

President Ritter von Seeliger merges the philosophy and philology class with the historical class to create the philosophical and historical class. 

1927

The Commission for Bavarian Regional History and the Institute for Ethnology are founded following a decree from the Bavarian state government. 

Albert Einstein an der Akademie in Heidelberg
Albert Einstein an der Akademie in Heidelberg

1933

In April, Albert Einstein cancels his corresponding membership under pressure from the academy. The minutes of the philosophical and historical department merely record the following matter-of-fact statement: "The corresponding member of department II, Mr. Einstein, has left the academy."

1933

Jewish employees of the academy and its commissions are dismissed in conjunction with the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, which is enacted on 7 April.

Präsident Leopold Wenger (1932–1935)
Präsident Leopold Wenger (1932–1935)

1935

The Commission for the Publication of Works by Johannes Kepler is founded under the presidency of Leopold Wenger.  

Präsident Karl Alexander von Müller (1882-1964)
Präsident Karl Alexander von Müller (1882-1964)

1936

On 2 March, Historian Karl Alexander von Müller is appointed president by the Reich Minister of Culture Bernhard Rust.

1936

The subject of permanently removing the scientific collections from the academy is repeatedly discussed for cost and administrative reasons. However, this is not done until 1936. Biologist Max Dingler (1883-1961), non-tenured professor of biology in Gießen and member of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) is appointed provisional General Director of the Bavarian Natural History Collections. In 1945, Dingler is relieved of his position. The idea of returning the collections to the academy is discussed but never carried out.  

1938

Jewish members Lucian Scherman (1864-1946), Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Richard Willstätter (1872-1942) and Heinrich Liebmann (1874-1939) are excluded from the academy.

The following members resigned “voluntarily”:
Full members: Johannes Sieveking (1869-1942), Karl Walter Brecht (1876-1950)

Corresponding members: Eduard Norden (1868-1941), Otto Hintze (1861-1941), Ernst Bernheim (1850-1942), Kurt Hensel (1861-1941), Georg Bredig (1868-1944), Medea Norsa (1876-1952).

From 1941 onwards, the “non-Aryan” corresponding members who live abroad are simply struck off the lists without being informed.

Max Förster, Erich von Drygalski and Rudolf Pfeiffer remain at the academy despite having Jewish ancestors.
The following members who are still alive at the end of the War are reinstated in 1945 with all associated rights: Walter Brecht, Kazimierz Fajans and Rudolf Pfeiffer.

1939

The Commission for the Corpus of Prehistoric Circular Ramparts in Southern Germany is founded and remains in existence until 1952. 

1939

The Reich Ministry of Science releases a new charter on 12 July that significantly restricts the academy's right to choose its own members. The academy president had not been elected since 1936. Instead, this role was appointed by the Reich minister. The new charter now abolished the ballot process based on black and white balls. From 1940 on, new members are selected from a list. 

1939

The Commission for the Publication of a Medieval Latin Dictionary is founded. 

1940

In the academy’s electoral meeting and under pressure from the Bavarian Ministry of Culture, six candidates are elected who have not been proposed by the two classes: Walther Wüst, who had previously been rejected in the electoral meeting of the philosophy and history department, Lutz Pistor (Chancellor of the Technical University), philologist Franz Dirlmeier, the botanists Friedrich Boas and Friedrich von Faber and physicist Rudolf Tomaschek.
The minutes of the general meeting held on 1 June state that the academy agrees to “comply with the wishes of the state minister” and to “use the supplementary list to select members en masse across the entire academy without assessing scientific merit on an individual basis”.

1940

The Commission for the Corpus philosophorum medii aevi is founded and remains in existence until 1954. 

Präsident Mariano San Nicoló
Präsident Mariano San Nicoló

1944

Mariano San Nicoló is appointed president on 26 November.

Zerstörtes Akademiegebäude an der Neuhauser Straße
Zerstörtes Akademiegebäude an der Neuhauser Straße

1944

The academy building in Neuhauser Strasse, Munich, is completely destroyed in a bombing raid in the night of 23/24 April 1944. All work at the academy comes to a halt.  

1945

Facing expulsion following internal investigations initiated by the academy, Karl Alexander von Müller resigns “voluntarily” from the academy on 23 September. Müller resigns from his position as secretary of the Historical Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities in December 1945. Six months later, he also steps down from the Commission.  

1946

On 25 July, the military government permits the academy and many of its Commissions to resume the full scope of their scientific activities. 

Provisorisches Domizil der Akademie in der Maria-Josepha-Straße 11, München
Provisorisches Domizil der Akademie in der Maria-Josepha-Straße 11, München

1946

After denazification, the academy moves into a temporary home at Maria-Josepha-Strasse 11 in Munich under the presidency of Walther Meißner. Lack of paper is a major problem that hampers research work.  

Ausweichstelle Kloster Scheyern des Thesaurus Linguae Latinae
Ausweichstelle Kloster Scheyern des Thesaurus Linguae Latinae

1946

Researchers on the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae project resume their work in the Scheyern Abbey and in Icking, which serve as temporary bases following the complete destruction of the project rooms in Munich. 

Keilschrifttext: Klage einer Göttin, altbabylonisch (ca. 18./17. Jhd. v. Chr.), Herkunft: Sippar? Alle Bruchstücke werden im Vorderasiatischen Museum in Berlin aufbewahrt.
Keilschrifttext: Klage einer Göttin, altbabylonisch (ca. 18./17. Jhd. v. Chr.), Herkunft: Sippar? Alle Bruchstücke werden im Vorderasiatischen Museum in Berlin aufbewahrt.

1946

The Commission for Research into Cuneiform Texts and Near East Archaeology is founded. One of the key aims of the Commission is to provide a uniform, factual and formal platform for investigations into cuneiform texts. In 1993, the department was renamed the Commission for Research into Cuneiform Texts and Near East Philology. 

Mischkühler-Einheit des Kernentmagnetisierungskryostaten „Millimühle 2“ des Walther-Meißner-Instituts.
Mischkühler-Einheit des Kernentmagnetisierungskryostaten „Millimühle 2“ des Walther-Meißner-Instituts.

1946

The Commission for Low Temperature Research is founded at the suggestion of academy member Klaus Clusius (1903-1963), professor of physical chemistry at the Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, and Walther Meißner (1882-1974), professor of technical physics at the Technical University of Munich and President of the academy from 1946 to 1950.
The Commission runs the Walther-Meißner-Institute for Low Temperature Research. The key fields of research here include superconductivity, isotope separation and the magnetic properties of matter. 

1946

The first annual meeting after the Second World War takes place in the hall of the Brunnenhof Theatre.

1948

The Commission for Onomastics is founded (prior to 1962: Commission for Research into Place Names). 

1948

The Commission for Language Preservation is founded. Up until 1971, the Commission is involved in the German spelling reform and puts together an index of vocabulary on contemporary language. The Commission provides advice to authorities and schools in issues relating to contemporary language and language history. 

Beginn des Bassus von Lassos Motette Sancta Maria, omnes Sancti Die in einem zeitgenössischen Druck (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, 4 Mus.pr. 133/3).
Beginn des Bassus von Lassos Motette Sancta Maria, omnes Sancti Die in einem zeitgenössischen Druck (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, 4 Mus.pr. 133/3).

1949

The Music History Commission is founded to oversee two major projects: The first involves the production of a complete edition of the manuscripts and prints of the composer to the Munich court Orlando di Lasso. This multi-volume edition also includes an extensive index of his works. The Commission also creates the “Lexicon musicum Latinum medii aevi”, which focuses on musical terminology from the 9th century to the end of 15th century. 

1949

By 1955, the prehistoric collection, Egyptian collection and coin collection have been removed from the academy together with the museum for ethnology and the museum for casts of classical sculptures. The natural sciences collections are placed under the management of the Bavarian Natural History Collections.

1950

The German Geodetic Commission is founded. The Commission operates the German Geodetic Research Institute, which takes part in international geodetic activities and represents the German geodesy community at international conferences. 

1950

The Munich branch of the Commission for the Publication of German Inscriptions from the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period is founded. 

Logo der „Gesellschaft der Freunde der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften“
Logo der „Gesellschaft der Freunde der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften“

1950

The new Society of Friends of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities is founded to improve the academy's strained financial situation and to help it source at least some of the funds it needs to carry out its many different activities.

1950

The Commission for the Publication of the Collected Mathematical Works of C. Caratheodory is founded and remains in existence until 1957. 

1950

The Wendelstein Observatory Commission is founded and collects meteorological data and other measurements on the Wendelstein mountain until 1974. 

Büste von Johann Gottlieb Fichte
Büste von Johann Gottlieb Fichte

1957

Foundation of the Commission for the Publication of the Fichte bequest.

1957

Foundation of the Commission for Comparative Archaeology of the Roman Alps and Danube Countries (pre-1998: Commission for Archaeological Research into Late Roman Rhaetians).

1957

The Commission for the Publication of an Index on the Novels of Justinian is founded and remains in existence until 1992. 

1959

The Bavarian Minister for Teaching and Culture, Prof. Dr. Theodor Maunz, awards the academy the status of an organisation under public law (Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts) on its 200th anniversary. 

Neues Domizil der Akademie am (ehemaligen) Marstallplatz
Neues Domizil der Akademie am (ehemaligen) Marstallplatz

1959

On its 200th anniversary, the academy moves into its new home in the north-east wing of Munich's Residenz palace, which was built by Leo von Klenze. The academy now has 135 offices and rooms, a library, two classrooms and a prestigious lecture theatre seating up to 420 people.  

Grundsteinlegung des Kronprinz Rupprecht Brunnens, 1959.
Grundsteinlegung des Kronprinz Rupprecht Brunnens, 1959.

1959

Members of the academy start wearing the robes that are still worn today.

1960

The Commission for Medieval German Literature is founded. Its aim is to investigate how medieval literature was passed down through the ages. 

1960

The Commission for Transuranium Research is founded. The Commission carries out research into atoms such as plutonium and uranium until 1975.  

1961

The Commission for Semitic Philology is founded. This organisation collaborates on the Dictionary of Classic Arabic published by the German Orient Society.  

1961

The Commission for Patrology is founded and continues its research at the academy until 1972. 

Sentenzenkommentar des englischen Dominikanertheologen Richard Fishacre.
Sentenzenkommentar des englischen Dominikanertheologen Richard Fishacre.

1962

The Commission for the Publication of Unprinted Texts from Medieval Intellectuals is founded. Its role is to produce critical editions of important theological and philosophical texts in Latin from the 12th to the 15th centuries. The programme focuses on researching hand-written sources in the fields of medieval philosophy and theology.  

Pegelstation am Vernagtferner Gletscher
Pegelstation am Vernagtferner Gletscher

1962

The Commission for Glaciology is founded. It is involved in glaciological research in the Alps and takes part in expeditions. The Commission focuses its efforts on the Vernagtferner glacier in the Ötztal Alps, where is operates the Vernagtbach monitoring station. Located at an altitude of 2,640 metres, it is the highest discharge station in the Eastern Alps. 

Max-Weber-Gesamtausgabe
Max-Weber-Gesamtausgabe

1962

Foundation of the Commission for Social and Economic History, which is tasked with editing the complete works of Max Weber.

1962

Academy members Hans Piloty and Robert Sauer set up the Commission for Electronic Computing (now the Commission for Information Technology). With support from the government of the Free State of Bavaria, they create a shared computing centre for research and teaching open to all Munich-based universities. Today, the organisation is known as the Leibniz Supercomputing centre and is located in Richard-Wagner Strasse 18.

1963

The Commission for the History of Intellectual Development in Late Antiquity is founded. 

Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951)
Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951)

1965

The Commission for the Publication of the Works of Arnold Sommerfeld is founded and edits his works until 1968. 

Gebäude des WMI in Garching
Gebäude des WMI in Garching

1967

The WMI moves into a new building in Garching. 

1968

The Commission for the Publication of a Second Series of the Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum is founded. The Commission continues the work of editing the files of the Ecumenical Councils, which was started by the philologian Eduard Schwartz (1858-1940).  

Gebäude des LRZ in der Barer Straße 21
Gebäude des LRZ in der Barer Straße 21

1970

The Leibnitz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) moves into a new building at Barer Strasse 21 and takes on responsibility for providing IT training at the Technical University of Munich.  

1974

The Dalai Lama visits the academy to see the work being carried out by the Commission for Central Asian Studies, which is putting together a dictionary of written Tibetan. 

1975

The Commission for Geomorphology is founded. Its core areas of research include mechanisms behind active peneplain formation in the humid tropics, the formation of pediments and broad terraces in mountainous areas as well as geomorphological ice age research.  

1975

The first post-War meeting of the Union Académique Internationale in Germany takes place at the academy. 

Friedrich Wilhelm von Schelling
Friedrich Wilhelm von Schelling

1976

The Commission for the Publication of the Works of Schelling is set up. It is tasked with compiling the works of the former president of the academy Friedrich Wilhelm von Schelling (1827-1842). 

1976

The first Werner Heisenberg lecture is held. This series of lectures remains very successful today and is held in collaboration with the Carl Friedrich von Siemens Foundation.  

1979

The Academies' Programme is launched. Financed by Federal and state governments, this programme provides a new basis for the funding of long-term projects at the academy.  

Blick in das Hochdrucklabor des Bayerischen Geoinstituts mit drei Viel-Stempel/Multi Anvil-Pressen.
Blick in das Hochdrucklabor des Bayerischen Geoinstituts mit drei Viel-Stempel/Multi Anvil-Pressen.

1979

The Commission for Geoscientific High-Pressure Research is set up. The programme provides scientific support for the Bavarian Research Institute of Experimental Geochemistry and Geophysics at the University of Bayreuth. Research work focuses on investigating the relationships between the stability, chemism, structure and physical properties of minerals. The project’s aim is to achieve greater understanding of rock-forming processes.  

1979

The Dalai Lama visits the academy for a second time in October.  

Pompeji
Pompeji

1984

The Commission for Researching Antique Cities is set up to carry out archaeological research into city culture in Greco-Roman antiquity.  

1984

8 December: Ceremonial event with President of Germany Richard von Weizsäcker and Minister President Franz Josef Strauß to celebrate the academy’s 225th anniversary.

Adalbert Stifter (1805-1868)
Adalbert Stifter (1805-1868)

1986

The Commission for Modern German Literature is founded. 

Cover der Rundgespräche der Kommission für Ökologie
Cover der Rundgespräche der Kommission für Ökologie

1986

The Commission for Ecology is founded on request from the Bavarian State Minister for Development and Environmental Issues. The Commission aims to address current and probable future ecological issues and to discuss these with groups of experts. 

Friedrich Heinrich Ritter von Jacobi (1748-1819)
Friedrich Heinrich Ritter von Jacobi (1748-1819)

1987

The Commission for the Publication of the Correspondence of F.H. Jacobi is set up. 

1990

The Commission for the Publication of Documents relating to Emperor Frederick II is established. 

1990

Japan's Emperor Akihito visits the academy for the commemoration of academy member Philipp Franz von Siebold (1796-1866). Siebold travelled to East Asia as a physician in the Dutch army and described Japan as a wonderful country in one of his letters.

1995

For the first time in the history of the academy, two women are accepted as full members: Johanna Narten, professor for Indo-German studies and Indo-Iranian studies, and Regine Kahmann, professor of genetics.

1996

The Commission for the Publication of an Old Occitan Dictionary is founded. 

1996

The Commission for Cultural Anthropological Studies is set up. 

1999

The academy holds its first open day. 

21st century

Roboterhand mit sensomotorischer Steuerung
Roboterhand mit sensomotorischer Steuerung

2001

The Commission for “Neurosciences: Sensorimotor Functions in Humans and Machines” is founded with the aim of researching sensorimotor controls for biological and technical systems. 

Alpenforschung in der Praxis
Alpenforschung in der Praxis

2001

The Commission for Mountain Research is founded. Its task is to promote Alpine-wide, multidisciplinary collaboration in the field of Alpine research and ensure that research findings are put to practical use and made available in the public domain.

2002

Fifty-year anniversary of the German Geodetic Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

2003

Foundation of the Technology Forum, a standing committee for engineering and applied natural sciences. The committee organises public information and discussion forums at the academy on issues of scientific and general interest.

Ernst Troeltsch (1865-1923)
Ernst Troeltsch (1865-1923)

2004

The Commission for Research into the History of Theology is founded. The project focuses primarily on producing a critical edition of the complete works of Ernst Troeltsch.

Herkulesteppich im Plenarsaal
Herkulesteppich im Plenarsaal

2004

After undergoing preservation work for one year, the Hercules tapestry returns to the plenary hall. It is the only remaining example of the Hercules Series, a collection of ten tapestries produced in the 16th century, that can still be seen it its original form. The tapestry shows Hercules and his nephew Jolaus battling the many-headed hydra of Lerna. By slaying the monster, the hero of antiquity completes the second of the twelve labours he must perform to become immortal. The tapestry comes from the Antwerp studio of Michiel de Bos and is believed to have been completed in 1567.

Johannes von Damaskus (ca. 700–ca. 750)
Johannes von Damaskus (ca. 700–ca. 750)

2006

The Commission for the Publication of the Works of John of Damascus is founded. The Commission is tasked with producing a critical edition of the Greek prose manuscripts written by the Byzantium theologian John of Damascus (c. 700 - ca. 750). The project work is coordinated by the Commission for Patrology at the German Academies for Sciences and Humanities. This organisation aims to produce critical editions of early Christian writers.

Neubau des LRZ in Garching
Neubau des LRZ in Garching

2006

The Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) moves to a new building in Garching. The LRZ had outgrown its old home in Barer Strasse. The building did not offer any means of expansion in the medium-term and asbestos was also discovered during renovation work.

Bernaert van Orley (um 1488-1541): Dr. med. Jors van Zelle, 1519
Bernaert van Orley (um 1488-1541): Dr. med. Jors van Zelle, 1519

2008

The Commission for the History of Science is founded. This is the first research project to focus on the vast body of letters written to and by doctors in German-speaking countries in the early modern period. These sources are stored in many different libraries and archives in Germany and abroad.

 


Präsident Willoweit bei seiner Rede zum 250-jährigen Jubiläum der Akademie
Präsident Willoweit bei seiner Rede zum 250-jährigen Jubiläum der Akademie

2009

In 2009, the academy celebrates its 250th anniversary with a wide range of events, publications, exhibitions and ceremonies.

Einige Teilnehmer des Jungen Kollegs
Einige Teilnehmer des Jungen Kollegs

2010

The Junges Kolleg (Young Academy) is founded. The organisation aims to support highly talented young scientists in Bavaria.

2011

The project to create an edition of the correspondence between King Ludwig I of Bavaria and Leo von Klenze concludes its work. The organisation started its work in 1998.

Claudius Ptolemaeus
Claudius Ptolemaeus

2012

The long-term project on the manuscripts of Ptolemy gets underway. Over the next 25 years, the project will edit Arabic and Latin translations of the main works of Claudius Ptolemy.

Zentrum für Virtuelle Realität und Visualisierung
Zentrum für Virtuelle Realität und Visualisierung

2012

The Centre for Virtual Reality and Visualisation opens on 25 October at the LRZ. The centre enables three-dimensional models of architectural plans to be created and movements inside the earth, which were previously only theoretically mapped, to be represented visually.

2012

The “Buddhist Manuscripts from Gandhara” project starts its work. The project will run until 2032, by which time it will produce an edition comprising the oldest manuscripts in Indian Buddhism.

2013

An agreement to expand the SuperMUC high-end supercomputer at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre is signed.
At the end of 2014 / start of 2015, a further 74,304 process cores featuring the latest Intel Xeon technology are added to the existing 155,656 process cores. A further 198 terabytes expand the main memory, taking it from 340 to 538 terabytes. Nine extra petabytes were added to the 12-petabyte background memory. Peak processing speed doubles to 6.4 petaflops.

2014

The Munich Historical Sciences Cluster of Excellence is founded. The historical research institutes in Munich agree to a multilateral collaboration that strengthens the historical sciences in Munich.

2014

The Academies' Open Day is held for the first time in Munich under the motto of "Water – Basis of Life and Source of Conflict". Over one thousand guests come to the Academies' Open Day in Munich's Residenz palace, including around 350 school children and winners of the academy award for water research ("Akademiepreis Wasserforschung”), which was held as part of the national and state-wide Young Researchers in Science (“Jugend forscht”) competition. Federal Minister Johanna Wanka and Bavarian State Minister Ludwig Spaenle visit the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities during the course of the Academies' Open Day.

Schloss Lustheim (Schleißheim): Diana und Opis fangen den armenischen Tiger (Foto: Ute Engel).
Schloss Lustheim (Schleißheim): Diana und Opis fangen den armenischen Tiger (Foto: Ute Engel).

2014

The new academy project “Corpus of Baroque Ceiling Frescoes in Germany” is approved as part of the Academies’ Programme. Ceiling frescoes are an important element of early modern art in Europe. The works by Baroque artists are particularly well known. This is the first time that the corpus of Baroque ceiling frescoes across Germany will be digitally documented, researched and made accessible to the general public via the Internet. The project starts on 1 July 2015, and will be overseen by the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities. It is based at the Institute of Art History at the Ludwig-Maximilians University (LMU) in Munich and the German Centre for the Documentation of Art History at the Philipps University in Marburg. The project is headed by Stephan Hoppe, professor of art history specialising in the history of Bavarian art at LMU Munich.

2015

Phase two of the SuperMUC project starts at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre. 86,016 cores in 6,144 processors based on the latest Intel technology with Intel Xeon E5-2697 v3 are added to the existing 155,000 cores. This adds a further 3.6 petaflops to the previous maximum theoretical processing speed of 3.2 petaflops. The phase two communication network is based on Mellanox FDR14 and ConnectIB InfiniBand technology. A further 200 terabytes are added to the existing 288-terabyte main memory.

2015

The Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities signs a collaboration agreement with the National Academy of Science and Engineering in Germany (acatech). “Our aim is to establish a stimulating collaboration that will enable both organisations to work together on areas such as fostering young academic talent and align their activities even more closely,” explains President Karl-Heinz Hoffmann.

2015

The Munich Center for Internet Research (MCIR) starts work on 1 December 2015. This new research centre at the academy carries out scientific research into the social changes caused by the Internet and digitalisation.

[Translate to English:] 2016

[Translate to English:] „dhmuc“-Netzwerk stärkt die Digitalen Geisteswissenschaften am Wissenschaftsstandort München: Die Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, die Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, die Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München und das Deutsche Museum haben einen Kooperationsvertrag über die Bildung eines Netzwerks für Digitale Geisteswissenschaften in München geschlossen. Unter dem Namen „dhmuc. Digital Humanities München“ institutionalisiert das Netzwerk die erfolgreiche Zusammenarbeit der letzten Jahre im gleichnamigen Arbeitskreis. Ziel des Netzwerkes ist es, die Digitalen Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften am Standort München zu stärken und weiterzuentwickeln.

[Translate to English:] 2016

[Translate to English:]

Amtsübergabe: Im Oktober 2016 wählte das Plenum der Gelehrtengemeinschaft mit überwältigender Mehrheit Thomas O. Höllmann zum neuen Akademiepräsidenten. Der Sinologe tritt sein Amt am 1. Januar 2017 an. Er folgt auf den Mathematiker Karl-Heinz Hoffmann, der nach zwei Amtszeiten nicht mehr als Präsident kandidierte. 

[Translate to English:] 2016

[Translate to English:] Mit einem zweitägigen internationalen Symposium beging das Projekt Lexicon musicum Latinum medii aevi (LmL) den erfolgreichen Abschluss seiner Forschungsarbeit. Seit 1960 erarbeiteten Wissenschaftler an der Akademie das Wörterbuch der mittelalterlichen Musikterminologie. Nach 56 Jahren liegt das Werk nun in gedruckter und digitaler Form vor: Insgesamt umfasst es 3.733 Wortartikel, 26 Begleitpublikationen und ein Online-Wörterbuch.